Windsor Medical Clinics - The medical term "Respiratory Disease" includes a large variety of pathological conditions affecting the tissues and organs which make gas exchange possible. Respiratory disease consists of conditions of the bronchi, upper respiratory tract, bronchioles, trachea, alveoli, pleura, pleural cavity in addition to the nerves and muscles responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases vary from mild and self-limiting like the common cold for example, to life-threatening conditions like for instance lung cancer, pulmonary embolism, and bacterial pneumonia.
Pulmonology is the study of respiratory disease and a doctor specializing in this field in particular is referred to as a pulmonologist. Different names used for this medical practitioner include: a thoracic medicine specialist, a respiratory medicine specialist, a chest medicine expert and a respirologist.
There are many classifications used for the numerous respiratory diseases; they can be classed by the tissue or organ involved or can be classed by the type and pattern of connected signs and symptoms, or based on the etiology or cause of the disease.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
This specific disease, which comprises emphysema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, are characterized by a high neutrophil count.
A common cause of acute respiratory disease is an allergic response because of exposure to various foods and agents. There are several really common allergens found in particular foods such as radish, lemon, sea foods like some prawns and fatty fish, peanuts, bananas, ice creams and dairy, pomegranates, arrowroot, lemon, berries and lady's finger. Climate could also affect some individuals because sandy and dusty climate during summer can make the quality of air poor for individuals who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This category of lung diseases are where the airways consisting of the bronchioles, alveoli and bronchi become reduced in volume or else have the free flow of gas impeded, thus making it harder to move air in and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma is an example of COPD. In this obstructive lung disease, the airways become damaged and this causes them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
Restrictive Lung Diseases are a category of respiratory disease that is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These RLD's can lead to incomplete lung expansion and increased lung stiffness. IRDS or Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an example.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Infections can affect whichever part of the respiratory system. They are traditionally divided into upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The most common type of upper respiratory infection is the common cold. Infections of the upper respiratory tract particular organs can comprise tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, otitis media and sinusitis are also in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Pneumonia is the most common lower respiratory tract infection. It is a lung infection typically as a result of bacteria, generally Streptococcus in the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large reason for pneumonia all over the world. Different fungi and viruses can cause pneumonia too, for instance acute respiratory syndrome and pneumocystic pneumonia.
Respiratory tumours are either malignant or benign.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Diseases of the pleural cavity includes emphysema and mesothelioma. A collection of fluid in the pleural cavity is known as a pleural effusion. This can be due to situations such as congestive heart failure and cirrhosis, since the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here can also happen from pleura inflammation, TB, pulmonary embolus, mesothelioma and other conditions.
The pneumothorax is a hole in the pleura which helps to cover the lungs, where air is permitted inside the lungs to escape into the pleural cavity. A tension pneumothorax is a severe type of this where the air is unable to escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure eventually gets bigger compressing the blood vessels and the heart, leading to a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Conditions which affect the pulmonary flow are referred to as Pulmonary Vascular Diseases. Some examples comprise: Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary embolism and Pulmponary edema.
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